Glossary:

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4-D® (Four Directions of Travel)
This type of truck is capable of travel in four directions forward, reverse, left and right.

ACTIVITY
The number of transactions as measured by # of picks in line items; amount shipped in dollars; etc.

ADDRESS
An identification given to a specific location within a facility to which flow of material can be directed.

AISLE, CLEAR
The dimension in a storage aisle, from rack to rack, subtracting any pallet or load overhang. Also, see pallet and load overhang.

AISLE, CROSS
See Aisle, Main.

AISLE, DEDICATED
An aisle in a warehouse serving only one function. May be for storage or order selection.

AISLE, MAIN
An aisle used to travel between points. There is typically no storage in this aisle, which “crosses” the end of pick aisles and serves as the main travel route for material handling type trucks.

AISLE, PICK
See Aisle Storage.

AISLE, STORAGE
An aisle used to stack loads or pick materials.

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)
Where the positive and negative polarity alternate. The alternating period is called a cycle. In the U.S. and Canada, the average is 60 cycles per minute; overseas, 50 cycles per minute is common.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
The temperature of the surrounding cooling medium, such as gas or liquid; usually refers to room or air temperature.

AMPERE HOUR (AH) CAPACITY
Refers to the volume of electricity that can be drawn from a battery, and is dependent on the number or the size of the plates within the individual battery cells.

ANSI B56.1
Safety standard for low-lift and high-lift trucks, sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The standard defines safety requirements regarding the design, operation and maintenance of forklift trucks.

APPLICATION SPECIFIC
Configured to meet the needs of a particular situation.

ATTACHMENT
A device other than conventional forks or load backrest on the elevating mechanism of a truck used for handling a load. Popular types are fork extensions, clamps, rotating devices, sideshifters, load stabilizers, rams and booms.

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B.S.O.C.

An acronym for Battery-State-of-Charge

BACKUP
Generally used as backup stock for a primary or fixed location.

BANDING
The location of stock in bands at different rack or Carousel shelf levels depending on turnover in such a way as to minimize travel or queuing. The fastest movers are placed at the most convenient level for picking with slower moving items placed at floor or higher levels. In systems using intellipickTM software, banding is used to divide a Carousel horizontally into two logical Carousels to minimize lift table movement.

BAR CODE
Machine-readable symbols consisting of black lines and white spaces that represent letters and numbers. The most common bar code format used in industry is Code 39. Universal Pricing Code (UPC) is also sometimes encountered. While formats are not interchangeable, most readers can be configured to read a number of different formats. Bar codes are read by either a direct contact wand or a laser scanner. Bar code input to a computer is done via a ©wedgeª device that plugs (wedges) between the keyboard and the CPU.

BASELEG
A structural member of a high-lift truck, containing load wheel(s), that extend in front of the mast from both sides. Also referred to as outriggers.

BASELEG OPENING (BLO)
The distance between the inside of the baselegs, measured at the narrowest point.

BASELEG OVERALL WIDTH (OAW)
The distance measured across the widest part of the outside of the baselegs.

BATCH
A process whereby the quantities of the same product number are summed together from multiple entries of bill of material model numbers, sub-assemblies, or customer orders, and the products are picked collectively.

BATCH PICK
The act of making one pick and breaking that pick down for multiple orders.

BATCH PICKING SYSTEM
System designed with operator prompting devices (see BPI) to support batching.

BATCHING
A compilation of several orders zoned for optimum pick rate, which are sorted at a centralized location.

BATTERY COMPARTMENT
The space in which the battery is housed and secured.

BATTERY CONNECTOR
A device used for connection of battery to truck or charger, composed of either male and female halves or two halves that differ only in method of mounting and polarity.

BATTERY ROLLER
Those rollers located in bottom of battery compartment and battery stands to facilitate easy battery installation and removal.

BED, LOAD
The portion of the Sideloader dedicated to carrying the load.

BI-DIRECTIONAL
The term given to a vehicle which is equipped for forward and reverse travel.

BINS
An enclosed space. Storage totes, storage areas, storage slots or storage containers as defined by physical parameters. Also a synonym for Carousel “carrier”.

BROKEN CASE
A line item pick representing a quantity less than a full case.

BUFFER STORAGE
Back-up storage for fast moving items. Also a temporary holding area for small lots of product between production calls.

BULK STORAGE
1. Floor stacking unit loads on top of unit loads. Typically used for high volume, high cube and/or seasonal products. Often uses nesting or stacking racks. Note Not typically suitable with FIFO requirements. 2. An area within a facility where items are too large or throughput is too high to be placed in a storage bin. (See also, Floor Stacking.)

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CANADIAN CENTRE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY
CCOHS promotes a safe and healthy working environment by providing information and advice about occupational health and safety.

CANTILEVER RACK
A rack system with arms cantilevered off a vertical column and loads placed either directly on the arms or on shelves supported by them. Used extensively in steel, lumber and furniture warehousing, having the advantage of long unobstructed shelves with no uprights to restrict storage.

CAPACITY
A truck's load capacity at a specified load centre, stated in pounds at a specific fork height

CARD CAGE
A device in which printed circuit cards are housed.

CAROUSEL
Horizontal or vertical rotating bin unit to deliver parts to an operator in a fixed position or work station.

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME (CTS)
The most commonly cited of the cumulative trauma disorders, CTS is characterized by painful hand and wrist motion leading to disability. It results from inflammation of the sheath in the wrist that contains many of the muscles, tendons, and nerves controlling hand and wrist movement. The inflammation results from frequent repetitive wrist movements under force.

CARRIAGE
A support structure for forks or attachments, generally roller mounted, which travels vertically within the mast of a fork truck

CARTON CLAMP
Hydraulically operated blade attachment which can be fitted to forklift trucks to enable unit loads of cartons to be handled without the use of pallets. Special thin-bladed types also allow order picking by “skimming” layers of cartons off stacked pallets

CARTS
Used to hold and/or transmit items selected to fill an order requirement, often customized to meet specialized needs.

CASE IN / PIECE OUT
Storage of a complete stored unit and picked from inventory as a separate individual unit.

CELL
One section of a battery.

CENTRE OF GRAVITY (CG)
The point at which the load mass is concentrated.

CHARGING
The process whereby a battery is returned, electrochemically, to its maximum ability to deliver current. This is accomplished via connecting the battery to an appropriately-sized charger.

CLEAR STACKING HEIGHT
Vertical space available for storing product.

COLD STORAGE CONDITIONING
A preparatory process that allows the truck or Carousel to operate at levels of temperature that may cause condensation and/or freezing.

CONGESTION
The overcrowding or obstruction of aisles or docks, for any reason. A situation that develops when people, lift trucks, or merchandise attempt to occupy the same space at the same time.

CONTENTION
Traffic interference or bottlenecks.

COUNTERBALANCE TRUCK
A truck equipped to lift and transport the load in front of the load wheels.

COUPLER
A mechanical tow hitch.

CSR
Counterbalanced SWING-REACH® model designator. 2. Customer Service Representative

CUBE CAPACITY
The amount of any given SKU that a defined storage address can accept. Usually expressed in cubic inches or cubic feet and related to the cube of the SKU.

CUBE UTILIZATION
The ratio of occupied space to total cubic space available, usually expressed as a percentage.

CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTD)
Also called cumulative trauma injuries and repetitive motion disorders. These disorders are muscle, nerve, or joint- related problems caused by inappropriate movements over a period of time. They are caused by the same four factors characteristic of "at-risk movements", often resulting from a combination of those factors where the stress of each factor taken alone would not necessarily be a problem.

CUSHION TIRE
A solid tire that has a low cross section profile. Designed for indoor use.

CYCLE TIME
The time required to complete a unit of work, generally the total of travel time, plus load storage or retrieval time.

CYCLE, BATTERY
The term used for one discharge and one charge of a cell or battery. Cycle life refers to the number of times a battery can be charged and discharged before it is no longer able to do the required work for which it is intended.

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DAY'S SUPPLY

1. Average amount of an SKU stored in a picking location required to support the day's activities. 2. Amount of product picked in a day.

DEADMAN BRAKE
A brake that remains engaged until it is intentionally released by the truck's operator.

DEEP DISCHARGE
Removal of up to 80% of the rated capacity of a cell or battery.

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)
Where the positive and negative polarity remains in the same relative position (does not reverse). This is characteristic of current delivered by batteries.

DISPLAYS
Used to provide feedback to the operator. Important issues are appropriate placement, control/display relationship, readability, and use of symbols, colours, etc.

DOUBLE DEEP
Two pallet deep storage where one storage unit (i.e. pallet) is stored behind another. Accessible from front position only. Works well on high volume-low variation.

DR
DEEP-REACH® model designator.

DRIVE TIRE
The tire that furnishes the tractive force to move the truck.

DRIVE-IN RACK
A rack configuration that permits a vehicle to enter the structure from one side to pick up or deposit pallets on a continuous rail. The structure dictates first-in, last-out storage.

DWELL TIME
Total stop time spent at pick front.

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EASi

An acronym for Ergonomically Advanced System w/intellidrive®.

ELEVATED HEIGHT (EL. HT.)
The vertical distance from the floor to the load carrying surface adjacent to the heel of the forks with mast vertical, and in the case of reach trucks, with the forks extended.

ELEVATING SECTION
The assembly of mast, telescopics and lift ram(s).

EQUALIZING CHARGE
An extended charge given to a storage battery to insure the complete restoration of active materials in all the plates of all the cells.

ERGONOMICS
The study of work organization, and the human/machine interface in particular. Not to be confused with mere appearance, ergonomic design is a science devoted to helping the machine operator be more productive by allowing him/her to operate more efficiently, comfortably, and safely.

EXTENDED "M"
An extended turret on a Swing-Reach® truck which accommodates wide pallets.

EXTENDED HEIGHT (EX. HT.)
The vertical distance from the floor to the top of the uppermost structure of the truck (mast, carriage, load handler) in the maximum height position.

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FATIGUE

A primary cause of disability, loss of productivity, and worker dissatisfaction, fatigue can be minimized by good ergonomic design. This is done through intelligent use of limb and body supports, adjustability, ergonomic materials, and efficient layout.

FIRST-IN FIRST-OUT (FIFO)
A method of maintaining product rotation by always picking the oldest first. Also an accounting method that is based upon valuing inventory or picking inventory from the oldest to the newest. The first product put away is the first product picked.

FIRST-IN LAST-OUT (FILO)
A storage system where inventory first stored is last removed. Generally other than single deep, that allows minimal selectivity.

FISHS
First-in, still here somewhere! Lost or buried inventory items.

FIXED LOCATION
A dedicated storage slot for a specific item.

FIXED SLOT
An addressed location of cubic space for a specific SKU.

FLOATING SLOT
Random storage locations. A storage location which can, when emptied, be restocked with a variety of different SKU's.

FLOOR GUIDANCE SYSTEM
A wire embedded in the floor carrying an alternating current, low voltage signal which will normally create a field around the wire that a vehicle, with appropriate sensing device, will follow causing it to steer an accurate course over the wire. No contact is necessary between the wire and the vehicle or its sensing device.

FLOOR SLOT
A storage slot at floor level.

FLOOR SPACE UTILIZATION
Cubic density of storage obtained using least amount of actual square footage.

FLOOR STACKING
Usually referring to the storage of pallets (one on top of the other) on the floor; could also be cartons or any type of product. (See also Bulk Storage.)

FLOW
The path(s) taken to pick, package and ship an order. The processing blueprint to accomplish the order picking process

FLOW RACK
Non-powered conveyer lanes with rollers pitched at a slight angle so that two or more loads can be stored in one lane with gravity providing the means of movement within that lane via FIFO basis (for case or pallet loads).

FORK ADJUSTMENT
The minimum and maximum overall width to which the carriage forks may be adjusted.

FORK EXTENSIONS
A fork attachment that increases the load-carrying surface of the forks.

FORKS
Horizontal tine-like projections, normally suspended from the carriage, for engaging and supporting loads.

FORWARD PICK AREA
Referring to the location of high turnover products for greatest availability.

FORWARD STEER
Forward Steer.

FOUR DIRECTIONAL
See 4-D.

FPM
Feet per minute, a measure of speed.

FREE LIFT (FL)
The attainable lift from the extreme lowered position of the carriage before the stated overall collapsed height of the mast is exceeded by any standard part of the forks, mast or carriage assemblies. (See also Nominal Free Lift and Full Free Lift.)

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GOLDEN ZONE

Fastest moving items grouped in the most accessible order picking area. By placing product into the appropriate golden zone, truck or Carousel movement is minimized and operator ergonomics is improved (less climbing and bending, etc.).

GRADABILITY
The percent (%) of grade that a truck can ascend or descend.

GRADE
The measure of the rate of ascent of a ramp numerically equal to the vertical rise divided by the horizontal length, multiplied by 100, and stated in percent (%).

GRADE CLEARANCE PERCENTAGE
The maximum slope whose crest can be negotiated due to the structural limitations imposed by the under clearance and wheelbase of a truck.

GRAVITY STORAGE
1. A storage method that allows pallets, boxes or cases to flow from rear to front in a storage system. 2. Storage involving flow to move pallets or cases for automatic replenishment of pick slot.

GUIDEPATH
The path of wire in the floor that wire guided vehicles track.

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HEAD LENGTH

The dimension from the rear bumper of the truck to the vertical face of the fork carriage.

HI-RISE PICKING
A method of picking orders from storage levels above the normal pick height (above 18 feet) which requires either operator aboard or automatic storage/retrieval system equipment.

HORIZONTAL TRANSPORT
A category of industrial truck designed to effectively transport material in the horizontal direction. The Model 19, Walkie and 40 Low Lift are The Raymond Corporation products in this category.

HYDROMETER
A device used to measure density or specific gravity of the sulfuric acid-water electrolyte solution.

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INDUSTRIAL TRUCK ASSOCIATION (I.T.A.)

An organization of industrial truck manufacturers and suppliers that formalizes and publishes industry statistics. Also forms committees to address issues such as safe truck use.

INTELLIDRIVE®
Raymond's advanced state-of-the-art microprocessor based control system that enhances truck performance, productivity and reliability beyond all established standards.

INTELLIGUIDE
Raymond's wire guidance system (See Also Wire Guidance).

INTELLISPEED
A system that automatically regulates the maximum allowable travel speed at which the truck can operate given the elevated fork height, heading angle, direction of travel and operator speed request. Because this information is monitored by a microprocessor, the travel speed is greater than conventional limit-switch regulated trucks.

INVENTORY TURNS
Accounting principle based on the number of times the entire inventory is used up and replenished in a given period of time.

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JUST IN TIME (JIT)

Controlling incoming merchandise so as to minimize inventory required to support production.

KEY, ELECTRONIC PASSWORD
Allows the operation of an EASi truck to be password-protected. This option means only authorized, password accessed, drivers can operate the vehicle. The start-up of a vehicle with this option requires both the mechanical key along with knowledge and ability to enter the appropriate password.

KILOWATT (KW)
One thousand watts.

KILOWATT HOUR (KWH) CAPACITY
The total amount of power (volts x amps x hours divided by 1,000) that can be drawn from a battery. A battery's kilowatt hour rating is a direct measure of how much work the battery is capable of performing.

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LAST-IN FIRST-OUT (LIFO)

An accounting method of inventory control which results in the most recently received items pulled first, picking inventory from the newest to the oldest.

LAST-IN LAST-OUT (LILO)
Used in random and forward storage systems. Also, with products that do not have a shelf life, inventory last stored is last removed.

LAYOUT
The physical arrangement of the warehouse facility designed to maximize efficiency.

LAYOUT, EQUIPMENT, ACTIVITY, PEOPLE (LEAP)
Four key determinants of an order picking application. These aspects control the type of order picking application.

LEAD TIME
The period of time elapsing between when an order is placed and the order is fulfilled.

LED
Light Emitting Diode.

LENGTH OF LOAD
That dimension of the load measured parallel to the forks.

LEVEL OF ACTIVITY
The frequency of line items picked of any given SKU relative to other SKU's in the system.

LIFT SPEED
The average velocity in feet-per-minute when raising the load carriage throughout its operating range, specified for empty and loaded conditions.

LINE
A single transaction part number. It represents a line on an invoice or one stop at a bin front.

LINE DRIVER
An oscillator, amplifier, and associated circuitry, that supplies the guidance signal to the guide wire in an electro-magnetic wire guided system.

LINE ITEM SEQUENCE
The order in which parts are picked.

LINE OF SIGHT
A description of angles of visibility, which is a key ergonomic design factor.

LIST PRICE
Suggested selling price to the end user.

LIVE STORAGE
An active part or usage item, generally located in a specific storage slot.

LOAD BACKREST
The portion of the carriage and forks which supports the load when it is tilted rearward, upward or elevated.

LOAD BACKREST EXTENSION
A device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame (load backrest).

LOAD CENTRE, HORIZONTAL (LC)
The horizontal distance from the intersection of the fork face and fork heel (or equivalent load positioning structure) to the centre of gravity of the load.

LOAD CENTRE, VERTICAL
The vertical distance from the carrying surface of the fork (or equivalent load carrying structure) to the centre of gravity of the load.

LOAD OVERHANG
The portion of the load which projects beyond the front, back or sides of the pallet, skid and/or load beam (See also Pallet Overhang.)

LOAD WHEEL
As pertaining to reach and straddle trucks, those wheels that are located in the baselegs.

LOCATION
A stock-keeping address consisting of aisle, aisle side, rack bay, shelf level, slot, subslot

LOST LOAD CENTRE (LLC)
The amount of horizontal distance, measured from the carriage forward, that is lost from the standard 24" load centre when an attachment is added.

LOW LIFT TRUCK (L)
A truck equipped with an elevating mechanism designed to raise the load only enough to permit horizontal movement.

LOW LIFT, PLATFORM TRUCK (L,P)
A truck designed and built to handle a customer's particular type of skid.

LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER (LVCB)
A device that electrically prevents lifting of forks when the battery voltage drops below a predetermined level.

LOW-MAINTENANCE BATTERY
The preferred term for what is commonly referred to as a “Maintenance-Free Battery.” Regardless of construction, all batteries require at least a minimum of maintenance to perform at optimum levels. The term “Reduced-Maintenance” is also appropriate to describe these newer-generation batteries.

LOWERED HEIGHT (LH)
The vertical dimension to the top surface of the forks when the carriage is at its lowest position, but not dragging on the floor.

LOWERING SPEED
The average velocity in FPM when lowering the load carriage throughout its operating range, as specified for empty and loaded conditions.

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MARSHALLING

Sorting of batch picks for individual orders. Verification of product and count after the order picking function.

MAST
The support member that provides a structure to permit vertical movement of the carriage. It is usually constructed out of C-Channel uprights that provide the supporting pathway for the carriage rollers.

MINIMUM STORAGE AISLE WIDTH
The minimum aisle required to operate the proposed equipment.

MODULE
The device or container material is deposited in or on by the picker. (See also Pick Container.)

MPH
(Miles Per Hour). A measure of truck speed.

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NARROW AISLE LIFT TRUCK

An electric lift truck that can operate in aisles smaller than counterbalanced trucks, typically 8 to 10 feet clear.

NOMINAL FREE LIFT (TN)
A limited fixed free lift. Two stage mast only. (See also Free Lift and Full Free Lift.)

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OPERATOR DOWN
Vehicle operation where carriage elevates and operator remains on ground during storage/retrieval process.

OPERATOR ENVELOPE
The area within which the operator normally works. This area is a primary focus of ergonomic design and, in addition to allowing the operator and equipment to accomplish their assigned work, it must be designed to be safe, efficient, and comfortable.

OPERATOR UP
Vehicle operation where carriage and operator go up together during storage/retrieval process.

ORDER PICKER
A person or equipment assigned the function of selecting material required for orders from storage.

ORDERPICKER TRUCK, HIGH LIFT (OP)
A high lift truck controlled by the operator standing on a platform that moves up and down and intended for manual stock selection.

OVERALL COLLAPSED HEIGHT (OACH)
The maximum vertical dimension from the floor to the extreme top point of the mast with the fork carriage in the fully lowered position and unloaded.

OVERALL LENGTH (OAL)
Length of fork truck extremities measured in direction of fork length.

OVERALL WIDTH (OAW)
Width of fork truck extremities measured in direction of fork width.

OVERHEAD GUARD (OHG)
A framework fitted to a truck over the head of the operator's envelope.

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P/D STATION

Usually at the end of a rack row and used as a temporary drop station to hold pallets for movement into a rack system or retrieve pallets out of the rack system. Pick up and delivery point for incoming and outgoing loads into a rack system. Positioned to maximize vehicle efficiency.

PACER
A Raymond stand-up electric, counterbalanced, dual front wheel drive lift truck.

PALLET
A load supporting structure usually built with wooden front-to-back stringers and top and bottom decks with openings that allow pick up and transportation by a fork truck. Pallet specifications should be stated as length (stringer) x width.

PALLET OPENING
Generally used in conjunction with a rack system. A space where one fully loaded pallet may be stored.

PALLET OVERHANG
That portion of the pallet which projects beyond the front and rear pallet rack load beams. (See also Load Overhang.)

PARETO'S LAW
The premise that 20% of the inventory will require 80% of the picking activity.

PICK
The physical process of locating, counting and retrieving an item(s).

PIECES
The number of units of a specific SKU or line item on an order or the total number contained on an order of all SKU's picked.

PLATEN
An integral part of a Push-Pull attachment. (See Options Section, Attachment Push-Pull). The platen is approximately 1" thick at the heel and has a full taper to the tip. There are usually two platens required per attachment each being approximately 15" wide x 48" long. The platen supports loads that are transported on slip-sheets rather than pallets.

PLATFORM TRUCK (P)
A (High-Lift or Low-Lift) truck with a load handling platform designed to pick up and deposit a customer's particular type of skid.

POLY
Polyurethane (used for tires, wheels, guide rollers).

POWER UNIT
That portion of a fork truck that contains batteries, drive wheel(s), lift pump and motor/auxiliary pump and motor.

PRIME
1. The best of a category, i.e. prime location, meaning first location to check. 2. To load the computer with the known orders that will need to be picked so that a pick list or automated instructions can be generated.

PRODUCTIVITY INTERSECTION
The point at which the number of personnel and equipment maximizes productivity.

PROPORTIONAL PLUGGING
Enables the operator to control slow-down, direction change and machine.

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QUEUING

The optimum arrangement of orders for filling, either chronologically or to maximize picking efficiency throughout the warehouse.

QUICK DISCONNECT
See emergency power disconnect.

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RADIO FREQUENCY (RF)
Wireless communications used to communicate information to/from mobile stations throughout the warehouse. These stations are often attached to forklift trucks and sometimes hand carried.

RAIL GUIDANCE
A mechanical system that maintains the alignment of a fork truck in a storage aisle.

RAYMOND DATA®
A software program used to lay out warehouses, simulate vehicle requirements and productivity.

RAYMOND LEASING
The Raymond Corporation's leasing company.

REACH FORK®
The Raymond Corporation's Reach Truck family.

RECEIVING
The process of handling inbound product to the warehouse for stock replenishment and eventual picking.

REMOTE LIFT/LOWER
An optional feature that allows an operator to lift and lower the carriage from an approved platform attached to the carriage and supported on the forks of a lift truck.

REPETITIVE MOTION DISORDERS
Another name for cumulative trauma disorders. This is the term generally used by the U.S. government.

REPLENISH
To take stock from a storage location and transfer it to a primary pick unit location which has become empty.

RESERVE
Backup stock.

RESTOCK
1. The physical replenishment of stock in its designated storage location. 2. A period of time set aside for this process.

RETRIEVE
To bring product from its storage location to a disbursement point.

REVERSE STEER
On those trucks having a steering option, it is the type of steering that results in the truck turning to the right when steering wheel is turned counterclockwise and the operator is facing opposite direction of forks.

RF
See Radio Frequency.

RIGHT ANGLE STACKING
Loads, typically stored in racks, stacked by a fork truck at right angles (90o) to the path of travel in a storage aisle.

ROTATE THE QUEUE
When the top item in the queue is moved to the bottom, all others are moved up by one.

ROTATION
The alternation or redistribution of product in a storage system based on their seasonal demand.

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SAFETY BELT
A device usually worn around the waist which, when attached to a lanyard and lifeline or a structure, will prevent a worker from falling.

SAFETY-ON-THE-MOVE®
A multi-step training program for each major Raymond truck product line, with specifics on proper operation and load handling for that model.

SEASONAL
An item which is of varying demand depending on time of year, but follows the same pattern annually. Refers to time when more of certain inventory is demanded requiring that provision be made for their storage & retrieval as extra product.

SELECTIVE RACKS
Storage rack used to store pallet loads of material.

SELECTIVITY
The amount or percentage of product in a warehouse which is accessible to the aisle for picking.

SELF-DISCHARGE
The loss in capacity of a battery standing idle. Increases in temperature tend to accelerate the rate of self-discharge. Impurities in the electrolyte or plates also contribute to loss of battery capacity

SEQUENTIAL ZONE SYSTEM
A system of item storage where products are divided into classes. Within each class, items are arranged by part number sequence. Orders are split into two or more segments, the first zone logically being merged with the second zone and so on until the entire order is assembled in the right sequence.

SEQUENTIAL/SIMULTANEOUS
Goes beyond the sequence-of-use principle of arrangement to suggest that, whenever possible, simultaneous control and performance is more efficient than sequential control and performance. This concept suggests the desirability of simultaneous multi-function controls and was important to the design of the new EASi control handle.

SHELF HEIGHT INDICATOR (SHI)
A vertical light tree used to visually indicate shelf level and display some combination of quantity and slot for order picking.

SIDELOADER
A high lift industrial truck able to work in very narrow aisles and equipped to reach forward to pick up or deposit long, heavy loads (such as steel bars) or pallets. Also sometimes used in reference to sidereach vehicles like the Raymond Swing-Reach®.

SIMULTANEOUS FUNCTIONS
Multiple functions occurring at the same time, i.e. travel, lift and reach.

SINGLE DEEP
A storage system designed to give maximum selectivity, generally using single deep-type pallet storage racks.

SINGLE LOCATION SYSTEM
Each SKU has a permanent location that picks are made from. Replenishment is made from back-up stock.

SINGLE ORDER PICK
The process of completely picking the items on one list before starting another.

SKID
A load supporting structure with top deck and front-to-back legs that requires a platform truck for pick-up and transport. Specifications are stated as Width x Length.

SKU
See Stock Keeping Unit

SLIPSHEETS
Available in three (3) types corrugated, solid fiber and plastic. These are used in place of pallets and require a push-pull attachment with platens.

SLOT
A warehouse location with a specific address, or the front-to-back or side-to-side positioning of product on a carousel shelf.

SLR
Sideloader Reach Fork Truck model designator.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The weight of the sulfuric acid-water electrolyte mixture compared to an equal volume of water alone. Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.000. A battery's specific gravity reading affords an approximate indication of its state-of-charge.

STABILITY
A truck's resistance to overturning.

STAGING
The temporary storage of goods while awaiting the next step in the warehousing operation.

STOCKKEEPING ADDRESS
Location of a particular part, component or line item. May be a numeric or alphanumeric part number or location

STOCKKEEPING UNIT (SKU)
Represents one unique inventory item.

STORAGE AISLE
The aisle where one stores material or has access to material stored.

STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL TRUCK (SRT)
Battery powered storage and retrieval trucks that perform required warehousing functions.

STORAGE COSTS
The sum total of all costs associated with storage. It includes inventory costs, warehouse costs, administrative costs, deterioration costs, insurance, and taxes.

STORAGE EFFICIENCY
The measurement of quantity of product which can be stored on a fixed amount of space.

STORAGE SLOT
The “envelope” or cubic space available for storage or a unit load.

STRADDLE TRUCK (S)
A high-lift truck with a wide enough BLO to straddle a pallet and engage the load.

SWING-REACH® TRUCK (CSR)
A high-lift counterbalanced truck (equipped with a rotatable elevating mechanism) capable of transporting and tiering a load. It is able to traverse the load laterally for storage at right angles to the truck travel path.

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TACTILE AWARENESS

The ergonomic concept of designing controls that are different enough in shape and form that touch alone may be used to differentiate one from another.

TELESCOPING MAST
A multiple mast which permits maximum lifts substantially greater than the OACH. This is accomplished with one stationary member and other members which move vertically with respect to the stationary member and support the fork carriage in its vertical movement.

TETHER
A component that attaches the safety belt to the operator's work platform.

THREE-STAGE MAST
A fork truck mast assembly comprised of (1) stationary mainframe and (2) moving telescopics.

THROUGHPUT
1. The rate at which incoming orders arrive at the warehouse. 2. Rate at which lines represented by cards or as line data are picked and shipped. 3. Level of workload activity measured in loads per unit of time, normally loads per day or loads per hour.

TIER
A single layer of packages forming part of a unit load.

TIERING
The process of placing one load on or above another (See also Bulk Storage).

TILT
The function of altering the angle of the forks or the mast of a lift truck, to cradle the load or facilitate its deposit.

TOTE
Portable container for storing & transporting merchandise.

TOW TRACTOR
A powered industrial truck designed primarily to draw one or more trailers or other mobile loads.

TT
Three stage mast designator with one fixed stage and two telescoping stages.

TURNING RADIUS (OUTSIDE)
Half the diameter of the largest circle described by the outermost projection of a truck when driving slowly with the steering mechanism at the optimum steering angle.

TURNOVER
The frequency with which the total inventory of an item is shipped. Turnover is usually expressed as the number of turns per year.

TURRET TRUCK
See Swing-Reach Truck.

TWO-STAGE MAST
A fork truck mast assembly comprised of (1) stationary main frame and (1) moving telescopic assembly

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UL RATING

See Underwriters' Laboratories Listing.

UL RATING TYPE E
Electrically powered trucks that have minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards.

UL RATING TYPE EE
Electrically powered trucks that have, in addition to all of the requirements for the E and ES units, the electric motors and all other electric components completely enclosed.

UL RATING TYPE ES
Electrically powered trucks that, in addition to all of the requirements of the E units, are provided with additional safeguards to the electrical system to prevent emission of hazardous sparks and to limit surface temperatures

UNDER CLEARANCE
The distance, in inches, from floor to the underside of the truck.

UNDERWRITERS' LABORATORIES LISTING (UL)
A list of truck models complying with the requirements of Underwriter's Laboratories, an independent testing agency. Used by insurance companies to determine the premium rate for insurance coverage for various areas of operation.

UNIT LOAD
An assembly of unit or units that can be transported or stored in a single move.

UNIT LOAD SIZE
Description of load including length, width and height dimensions.

UNIT LOAD WEIGHT
The overall weight of the unit load including the weight of the pallet or container.

UNIVERSAL PRICE CODE (UPC)
See Bar Code

UPRIGHT
Section of the elevating section that pertains to the outside main frame and telescopic(s).

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VERY NARROW AISLE LIFT TRUCK (VNA)

Trucks that typically operate in clear aisles of approximately 5 feet.

VISIBILITY
This is the number one priority in ergonomic work space design due to its contribution to efficient operation and operator safety.

VNA
Very Narrow Aisle.

VOLTAGE
A measure of battery potential, stated in volts.

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WALKIE

A category of (Low-Lift and High-Lift) trucks controlled by a walking operator.

WALKIE HIGH LIFT
Pedestrian-controlled reach and straddle lift trucks.

WALKIE RIDER
Same as a Walkie, but equipped for rider-operation as well as pedestrian control. Very popular for ground-level orderpicking off pallets.

WHEEL BASE
The dimension between the centre line of the axle of the wheels located to the rear of the truck and the centre line of the axle of the wheels located on the front of the truck.

WHEEL LOADING
The measurement used to determine the effect the truck axle loading has on the floor on which it operates. There are two types of measurement Force concentrated reaction per tire, in pounds, exerted by wheel on the floor. P.S.I. the wheel loading, in pounds, divided by the wheel contact area in square inches.

WHEEL TRACK
The overall width dimension of the widest pair of wheels on a vehicle.

WIRE GUIDANCE
An electromechanical system that controls vehicle steering while tracking an energized guidewire secured in the floor.

WIRE GUIDE
An electronic control system that provides automatic steering of a vehicle while it is being used in a storage aisle.

WORK FLOW
The logical and efficient progression of the order assembly process.

WORK IN PROCESS (WIP)
Products that are in the process of being manufactured; incomplete products.

WORKSTATION
The area where the worker waits for the pick face to arrive in order to perform the order picking task (Carousels). A mobile work station would deliver the worker to the pick face (order picking vehicle).

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Z PICK

Picking slots are numbered so that the order picker's walk pattern, if he/she was picking from every slot, would be ahead four locations, across the aisle and back two locations, ahead four, across the aisle and back two - and so on. In many operations this arrangement yields an optimum actual walk pattern for the order picker.

ZONE
A designated area; defined location. A systematic division of a storage or pick area.

ZONE PICK
1. The picking of products from a given area by a worker or order picker. 2. Method used to pick product by dividing warehouse into segments with order picking personnel confined to each segment.

ZONES
Areas that are picked by a given number of order pickers.

ZONING
Organization of product by family and size, or by activity.

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